`Annual Chemists' Meeting Shows Growing Interest in Olive Oil - Olive Oil Times

Η ετήσια συνάντηση των φαρμακοποιών δείχνει αυξανόμενο ενδιαφέρον για το ελαιόλαδο

Ενδέχεται. 7, 2013
Alexandra Kicenik Devarenne

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Ο Patrick J. Donnelly, διευθύνων σύμβουλος της American Oil Chemists 'Society, απευθύνθηκε στην ομάδα κατά την ετήσια συνάντησή του στο Μόντρεαλ τον Απρίλιο 28, 2013.

η 104th American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) Annual Meeting & Expo took place April - – May -, - at the Palais des con­grès in Montréal, Canada with - peo­ple in atten­dance. The scope of the annual meet­ing is broad — there were over - pre­sen­ta­tions on all areas of fats and oils, reflect­ing the wide range of AOCS’s activ­i­ties — but olive oil is attract­ing increas­ing atten­tion in this sci­en­tific com­mu­nity.

AOCS traces its his­tory back to - and the cot­ton­seed indus­try, and has always had at its core the devel­op­ment and assess­ment of ana­lyt­i­cal meth­ods for oils. It has grown from its U.S. roots to become an inter­na­tional orga­ni­za­tion, with mem­bers and affil­i­ates around the globe. One of the essen­tial ser­vices of AOCS is its pro­fi­ciency test­ing pro­gram for lab­o­ra­to­ries which sends peri­odic oil sam­ples to par­tic­i­pat­ing labs around the world for analy­sis. AOCS then eval­u­ates the results, com­par­ing them to the known val­ues of the sam­ples, and pro­vides feed­back to the lab­o­ra­tory. Only when a lab con­sis­tently per­forms with accu­racy and pre­ci­sion on these tests can it be granted AOCS accred­i­ta­tion.

In -, AOCS launched its olive oil sen­sory panel pro­fi­ciency test­ing series in response to a world­wide demand for more trained and pro­fi­cient sen­sory pan­els to assess olive oil qual­ity. The Διεθνές Συμβούλιο Ελαιολάδου (ΔΟΕ) pro­gram of sen­sory panel recog­ni­tion is avail­able only to a lim­ited group of pan­els, namely those affil­i­ated with a gov­ern­ment agency. Since there are many pan­els attached to pri­vate labs, insti­tutes and com­pa­nies that are not eli­gi­ble for IOC recog­ni­tion, AOCS stepped in with its olive oil sen­sory panel pro­fi­ciency test­ing pro­gram which is open to all com­pli­ant olive oil taste pan­els.

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An update on the sen­sory pro­fi­ciency test­ing pro­gram was a topic at one of the olive oil meet­ings. Representatives from par­tic­i­pat­ing pan­els in the USA and else­where got a look at an anony­mous sum­mary of the results from the two rounds of sam­ples eval­u­ated to date and had an oppor­tu­nity to give feed­back. The - series will include twice the num­ber of sam­ples — four rounds of four sam­ples each.

The largest olive oil event was the -th meet­ing of the AOCS Expert Panel on Olive Oil chaired by Richard Cantrill, AOCS Chief Science Officer and Technical Director. There were updates on the progress of πρότυπα ελαιολάδου around the world. Paul Miller of the Australian Olive Association — who advo­cated for the for­ma­tion of the olive oil expert panel — reported that the Australian stan­dard adopted in - was finally get­ting some trac­tion with retail­ers and domes­tic and imported brands in Australia who are using it as a point of qual­ity in their mar­ket­ing. South Africa is also mak­ing progress on adopt­ing a stan­dard sim­i­lar to the one in Australia.

Miller cred­ited the sem­i­nal work in Northern Europe where qual­ity para­me­ters are being used by retail­ers to mon­i­tor the qual­ity of olive oil over time. He also out­lined the efforts under­way in Italy to adopt a gov­ern­ment stan­dard for a grade of high qual­ity extra vir­gin. There are ongo­ing efforts in Turkey and Israel to develop new stan­dards as well. In an aside, Miller men­tioned the chal­lenges pre­sented by China as an export mar­ket, where test results for unex­pected things such as afla­toxin are some­times required.

Η καλύτερη Πρόγραμμα παρακολούθησης της ποιότητας του USDA (QMP) was expanded to include olive oil in April -. At the Expert Panel meet­ing, the QMP update revealed that the pro­gram still has only one par­tic­i­pat­ing com­pany, Pompeian olive oil. The rep­re­sen­ta­tive of a domes­tic olive oil pro­ducer com­mented on this, say­ing his com­pany had inves­ti­gated the pro­gram but found it not fea­si­ble because of the bur­dens imposed by the test­ing pro­to­col.

An update from Dan Flynn of the UC Davis Olive Center briefed the group on the work of the past year. A sur­vey of food­ser­vice olive oils to fol­low up on the two UCD reports on super­mar­ket olive oils was pub­lished in September -. The results from fif­teen έξτρα παρθένο and eight olive oil grade sam­ples sourced from a major food ser­vice sup­plier, found one canola-adul­ter­ated sam­ple per cat­e­gory, and over­all qual­ity and sen­sory test­ing found - per­cent of the sam­ples not up to grade. There was also men­tion of test­ing on California olive oils to learn about the nat­ural chem­istry of the oil (fatty acid pro­files, etc) and ongo­ing research to cor­re­late chem­i­cal mark­ers with sen­sory per­cep­tion of ran­cid­ity.

In a dis­cus­sion about test­ing meth­ods, Claudia Guillaume of Modern Olives talked about her work over many years with pyropheo­phytin (PPP) and dia­cyl­glyc­erol (DAG) tests. She has retained sam­ples of olive oils since - and is test­ing them peri­od­i­cally to chart their chem­istry as they age up to and beyond their Best Before Date (BBD). She reported that her find­ings are very con­sis­tent: PPP rises at - – -% per year, and DAGs decline at - – - per­cent. The rela­tion­ship between these indices and the free fatty acids (FFA) and ultra­vi­o­let (UV) results give a lot of infor­ma­tion about the his­tory of an oil — its qual­ity when it was pro­duced, and how it has been treated since then, she said. Guillaume also described the method­ol­ogy she uses to deter­mine a tech­ni­cally sound BBD, incor­po­rat­ing DAG, PPP, UV, FFA and Rancimat test­ing.

The chal­lenges fac­ing olive oil in the sup­ply chain were a big topic. A new stan­dard for flex­i­tank lin­ers is under devel­op­ment with a focus on the phys­i­cal integrity of the bags. Input from the group on this topic was noted by John Hancock, rep­re­sen­ta­tive from the Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fats Associations (FOSFA), an inter­na­tional body deal­ing with world trade in fats and oils. Oxygen per­me­abil­ity, leach­ing and absorbance were all sug­gested by panel mem­bers as impor­tant issues for olive oil con­tain­ers. The need for recy­cling was also men­tioned, as a way of pre­vent­ing the reuse of lin­ers.

In the Expert Committee meet­ing and at a sub­se­quent study par­tic­i­pant meet­ing, there was an update on an AOCS-led study into the effects of aging on olive oil. The study is look­ing at the changes in the chem­istry and sen­sory prop­er­ties of olive oil over time, using both stan­dard tests and meth­ods, and the "lat­est and great­est” in instru­ment tech­nol­ogy. The pri­mary topic of con­ver­sa­tion was improve­ments and expan­sion of the project for the upcom­ing year, with par­tic­u­lar atten­tion to the idea of an optional "stress test” of the sam­ples for addi­tional infor­ma­tion. A pro­to­col will be enu­mer­ated for accel­er­at­ing the aging of the sam­ples so that labs and pan­els that may wish to go fur­ther with their test­ing to mea­sure accel­er­ated degra­da­tion effects in the oil.

In addi­tion to the focus of the olive oil Expert Panel and study par­tic­i­pant meet­ings, olive oil was the topic of a num­ber of posters pre­sented at the meet­ing. Projects on faster test­ing for PPP, olive oil stor­age tem­per­a­tures, geo­graphic ori­gin char­ac­ter­i­za­tion and the health effects of olive oil on women with dia­betes were pre­sented dur­ing the poster ses­sion. There was also a seg­ment dur­ing the Rancidity and Antioxidant Assessment ses­sion on inter­pret­ing the sen­sory qual­ity of vir­gin olive oil using volatile mark­ers. D.L. García González from Seville, Spain, pre­sented his work on the brain activ­ity of peo­ple smelling var­i­ous volatile com­pounds. The com­pli­cated nature of draw­ing con­clu­sions about the reli­a­bil­ity of volatile analy­sis for detect­ing defects was evi­dent, due to the com­plex rela­tion­ships in our sen­sory per­cep­tion of odors — com­pet­i­tive effects for exam­ple — which make it dif­fi­cult to know from a mechan­i­cal analy­sis of the volatiles what the final sen­sory per­cep­tion will be. "Further work is needed on volatile inter­ac­tions,” said González, "We are far from replac­ing sen­sory pan­els.”

AOCS Chief Executive Officer Pat Donnelly, shared his views on olive oil. "Since olive oil is not my back­ground, I am com­ing at this from the per­spec­tive of a con­sumer. I am learn­ing what’s behind the pro­duc­tion and sup­ply chain issues, and qual­ity stan­dards,” he said. "The con­sum­ing pub­lic doesn’t under­stand all this.”

When asked about the role of AOCS in the βιομηχανία ελαιολάδου, Donnelly said, "We can advance the sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy, the devel­op­ment of stan­dards, as we have in all the indus­tries we’re involved with. Then we hope con­sumer and gov­ern­ment enti­ties will use the infor­ma­tion to make informed deci­sions.” As Donnelly put it, "We are about the sci­ence.”

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